The animal life at elevations above the tree line consists almost exclusively of cold-tolerant endemic species that evolved from the wildlife of the steppes after the uplift of the Himalayas. Tigers, Elephants and rhinoceroses are restricted to parts of the forested Tarai region—moist or marshy areas —at the base of the low hills. Asiatic black bears, clouded leopards, , and Himalayan goat antelopes (e.g., the tahr) are some of the denizens of the Himalayan forests. The Indian rhinoceros was once abundant throughout the foothill zone of the Himalayas but is now endangered, as is the musk deer & Kashmir stag.
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